Including Students with Disabilities (SWDs) in physical education is a national interest that must be protected. Federal law, codified in the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), articulates that disability is a natural part of the human experience, and improving educational results for children with disabilities is an essential element of U.S. national policy of ensuring equality of opportunity for individuals with disabilities. With a national policy as profound as equality backing federal legislation for individuals with disabilities, it is surely the case that eliminating or effectively undercutting opportunities for SWDs to participate in physical education programming is a violation of their education rights. In this Article, the author proposes that physical education is and has always been an integral part of general public school curriculum. As such, SWDs must be provided equal access to physical education in public schools both as a matter of statutory right and national public policy. View More.
The modern era has posed a plethora of philosophical challenges for Islamic scholars and Muslim communities that were unrecognizable in the pre-modern period. Although the passage of time has brought about seismic shifts in societal values, the religious discourses on certain fundamental questions, especially conventions relating to marital law, are still based on pre-modern assumptions and methodologies.
This article will examine the methodologies of two prominent contemporary Muslim jurists, Ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani and Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, in negotiating between the vast body of Islamic legal literature that discusses marital law within a commercial contract law framework, and modern liberal perspectives about gender equality in marriage. More broadly, this article will assess the trajectory of ijtihad, an Islamic juristic concept that can be roughly translated as “independent reasoning,” in the modern and post-modern period through the lens of critical theory. Islamic jurisprudence as it pertains to family law, and in particular, marital law is an excellent case study for such an examination because of: (a) the vast differences in legal theory and legal practice, especially in the modern era; and (b) the chasm between certain Sharia-based rules and “modern” values and sensibilities.View More.
An option contract limits the power of acceptance and is a promise not to revoke an offer, in exchange for consideration. Without the enforceability of option contracts, parties would not be able to trust that the other party would not revoke the offer whenever it sees fit. Even with the myriad of ways contract law alleviates the need for blind trust, contracting carries with it an innate requirement that a party either trusts the system in its entirety, or trusts the other party to honor the contract. But, with the advent of online exchanges, how can anyone be sure their online activities are secure, or of the identity of a contracting party? What if there was a way to eliminate the need to trust people or institutions to carry out commercial contracting?
The emergence of blockchain, through the advent of Bitcoin, initially created societal distrust for the new technologies. Yet, while Bitcoin made waves in the financial sector, the most innovative aspect of Bitcoin is the underlying technology: blockchain. Blockchain mitigates the inherent risk involved in transacting with unknown parties and is therefore the closest thing to a trustless system created thus far. In fact, most proponents of blockchain technology define blockchain implementations (hereinafter “protocols”) as “trustless.” Understandably, the discussion of “trust” is confusing because trust is inherent in blockchain protocols in that they are incredibly transparent and secure, which eliminates the need for trust. Somewhat paradoxically, the Economist wrote that blockchain technology is “the greatest chain of being sure about things.” View More.